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Found in the trichomes of the plant, terpenes are plant oils with unique aromas and distinctive flavors (pine, citrus, mint) and are known to play a key role on the overall effects of each strain. Terpenes also play a key role in differentiating the flavor and scent of marijuana. Some terpenes might promote relaxation, while others energy or focus.
Read more about terpenes:
A terpene exuding a deep pine aroma shown to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides which would improve heart health.
Can reduce swelling and decrease inflammation. This terpene may improve memory and positively influences cognitive abilities. Research has proven Eucalyptol to be a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s, as it lowered the inflammation caused by amyloid beta plaques.
Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8 cineole, has a fresh, strong eucalyptus, camphoraceous, minty odor. It is a cyclic ether monoterpene. Eucalyptol has been popularly used on the skin, gums, or other topical areas. The terpene is toxic to several species of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. Further research has proven eucalyptol to be a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s, as it lowered the inflammation caused by amyloid beta plaques. eucalyptol is also an anti-inflammatory for sinuses and the digestive system. As an antioxidant, eucalyptol was effective at preventing lipid oxidation. In addition, eucalyptol has been effective in battling leukemia and colon cancer cells. Asthma remedies have also been used with eucalyptol.
- ANTI-BACTERIAL – Eucalyptol demonstrated bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus, proving to be a good anti-bacterial agent.
- ALZHEIMER’S – Eucalyptol was used as treatment against PC12 brain cells exposed to amyloid beta plaques. Molecular analysis showed the terpene lowered the expression of NOS-2, COX-2 and NF-κB. In addition on the cellular level proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 were reduced.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – Eucalyptol was able to mediate paw oedema and granulomas in a mice model. Eucalyptol was proven to lessen the effects of rhinosinusitis in a clinical trial. In regards to acute pancreatitis eucalyptol effectively reduced cerulein-induced histological damage, pancreatic edema, NF-κB expression, levels of MPO activity and MDA, while replenished the GSH depletion. Eucalyptol was also effective against colitis in rats upon induction by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). A marked reduction in gross damage scores and wet weights of colonic segments were shown in rats pre-treated with the terpene.
- 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
- 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) ameliorates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis via modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress and NF-κB activity in mice
- Therapy for Acute Nonpurulent Rhinosinusitis With Cineole: Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial†
- Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
- ANTI-OXIDANT – Eucalyptol eluted to lessening the effects of cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteins, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ion removal ability in high-density lipoprotein. Also less lipids were found in the bloodstream in a fish model. This can also prove useful in mitagating arteriosclerosis.
- INSECTICIDE – Eucalyptol demonstrated toxic activity against A. Albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm.
- ANTI-CANCER – Apoptosis of human leukemia Molt 4B and HL-60 cells was induced by eucalyptol. Morphological changes showing apoptotic bodies and fragmentations of DNA were observed. Also in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and RKO eucalyptol was effective as evidenced by WST-8 and BrdU assays. Through inactivation of survivin and Akt, and activation of p38, these molecules induced cleaved PARP and caspase-3, ending in apoptosis.
- ANTI-ASTHMA – In a lymphocyte and monocyte cell lines, eucalyptol significantly inhibited cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, and IL-5. This can be inferred to control airway mucus hypersecretion by cytokine inhibition which would also be effective for sinusitis and COPD. There was also a clinical trial that found eucalyptol to be effective as well.
Anti-Alzheimer’s, Anti-Asthsma, Anti-bacterial, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Insecticide
Gained the attention of scientists when it was discovered to be one of the first non-cannabinoids to directly activate cannabinoid receptors. Since b-Caryophyllene interacts with the body’s CB2 receptors, which play a role in relieving pain, this terpene supports and boosts the analgesic effects of CBD and THC.
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene, with a sweet, woody, spicy, clove-like smell. It is a unique terpene due to its large size and structure. Due to these properties, beta-caryophyllene is able to activate several receptors in the body, including CB2, which is usually activated most by CBD. beta-caryophyllene has been shown to be an effective analgesic by regulating neuroinflammation and thermal hyperalgesia. Also as an antioxidant, beta-caryophyllene is effective as demonstrated by [preventing lipid oxidation and scavenging other radicals. As and anti-inflammatory beta-caryophyllene has been proven to mediate kidney inflammation and its side effects. In addition, beta-caryophyllene has been eluted to be a gastric-protective.
- ANALGESIC – The analgesic effects of beta-caryophyllene were evaluated in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test and in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. Beta-caryophyllene attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and reduced spinal neuroinflammation. Also there were no signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of BCP after prolonged treatment.
- ANTI-OXIDANT – Beta-caryophyllene was demonstrated to have a high inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation and showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radicals and the superoxide anion.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – In kidney cells, beta- caryophyllene successfully ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, morphological damage, and renal inflammatory response. The effect of the compound was also correlated to mitigate oxidative and nitrative stress.
- GASTRIC-PROTECTIVE – Caryophyllene was indicated to significantly inhibit gastric mucosal injuries induced by necrotizing agents, yet barely affects the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. Caryophyllene produced anti-inflammatory effects, without indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like aspirin and ibuprofen.
Clove, Dry, Spicy, Sweet, Woody
Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Gastric-protective
A terpene present in the Chamomile flower, and provides soothing effects on top of potential benefits as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic.
Alpha-bisabolol also known as levomenol, is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene with a mild, floral, peppery odor. It has also been used for hundreds of years in cosmetics because of its perceived skin healing properties. Bisabolol has been effective at blocking the effects of mutagens on genetic integrity in liver cells. Bisabolol has also exhibited strong effects on Campylobacter which are involved in severe food poisoning. Furthermore, bisabolol has been associated with pain relief and neuroprotection, with possible uses in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
- ANTI-MUTAGENIC /ANTI-OXIDANT – The mutagenic effects of mutagens AFB1, CP, B[a]P, 2-AA and 2-AF were shown to be markedly reduced by alpha-bisabolol. Alpha-bisabolol also inhibited pentoxyresorufin-o-depentylase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, which are markers for cytochromes CYP2B1 and 1A1 in rat liver microsomes. Since CYP2B1 converts AFB1 and CP into mutagenic metabolites, and CYP1A1 activates B[a]P, 2-AA and 2-AF, the study suggest that alpha-bisabolol antimutagenicity could be carried out by an inhibitory effect on the metabolic liver activation of these promutagens.
- ANTI-BACTERIAL – Alpha-bisabolol was found to have strong antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter spp. with inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.001-1% (v/v). There was strong anti-Campylobacter activity achieved without adversely affecting the fermentation potential of the model system’s normal flora.
- ANALGESIC/NEUROPROTECTANT – The effect of bisabolol on the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Xenopus oocytes and interneurons of rat hippocampal slices was evaluated. It was found that bisabolol reversibly and concentration dependently inhibits acetylcholine-induced receptor mediated currents. The effect of bisabolol was not dependent on the membrane potential. Endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl channels were not associated in bisabolol actions. Increasing the concentrations of ACh did not reverse bisabolol inhibition. Furthermore, the specific binding of bungarotoxin was not attenuated by bisabolol. Choline-induced currents in CA1 interneurons of rat hippocampal slices were also inhibited. These positive outcomes can help in protecting specific neurons and fighting against alzheimer’s and parkinson’s.
Coconut, Fruity, Nutty
Analgesic, Anti-bacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-mutagenic, Antioxidant, Neuroprotectant
This terpene binds effortlessly to the body’s endocannabinoid system’s receptors. It has a knack for moving phytocannabinoids through the body and connecting them with the endocannabinoid system. Humulene is a powerful anti-inflammatory and an anti-pain compound. It has also been compared to dexamethasone, which is a steroidal anti-inflammatory. This is why it has been used for years in Chinese medicine, and in recent times in medical marijuana.
Humulene is one of the main terpenes in hops, from which it gets its name. Humulene is also called alpha-caryophyllene. Like beta-caryophyllene, humulene is a cannabinoid and sesquiterpene, although it does not contain a cyclobutane ring. Humulene is a powerful anti-inflammatory and an anti-pain compound. It also has anti-cancer properties. Humulene is unique because, like THCv, it acts as an appetite suppressant, showing promise for weight loss treatments.
- ANTIBACTERIAL – The antibacterial activity of basal fir oil (Abies balsamea) seen to be effective with Staphylococcus aureus. At 2.6 microg/mL, humulene was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration, the most potent of all the terpenes evaluated in the study.
Pichette A. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.
Phytother Res. 2006 May;20(5):371-3.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – Humulene was shown to be a good anti-inflammatory across a wide range of inflammatory markers. Its effects were comparable to dexamethasone in rat and mouse models. Humulene has been shown to have rapid onset and relatively good absorption with both oral and topical administration routes. In airway allergic inflammatory routes, humulene was shown to be effective orally or through aerosol.
Chaves JS. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in mice. Planta Med. 2008 Nov;74(14):1678-83.
Fernandes ES. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 27;569(3):228-36. Epub 2007 May 22.
Alexandre P Rogerio. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene α-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation.
Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Oct; 158(4): 1074–1087.
- ANTI-CANCER – Humulene was elucidated to be potent against several solid tumor cell lines. The molecular mechanism involves producing reactive oxygen species, or free radicals, and depleting natural antioxidants in the cells. Humulene was also shown to work synergistically with beta-caryophyllene in delivering the molecule to cancer cells, thus increasing the cytotoxicity of humulene on several cancer cell lines.
Legault J. Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action.
Planta Med. 2003 May;69(5):402-7.
Legault J. Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;59(12):1643-7.
Tundis R. In vitro cytotoxic effects of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) on human cancer cell lines.
Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(18):1707-18.
- INSECTICIDAL – Humulene was shown to be toxic against early third-stage larvae of the malaria, dengue, and filariasis mosquito vectors, An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus. Also humulene was proven to be a repellant to the adult mosquitos as well. In addition humulene was only toxic to non-pathogenic aquatic organisms, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis at much higher levels than those used against the mosquitos.
Govindarajan M. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors?
Parasitol Res. 2016 Jan 21.
Anti-bacterial, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Insecticide
Known for its ability to help alleviate stress and anxiety. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, Limonene has been shown to boost energy, help combat free radicals and assists in the absorption of cannabinoids into the body.
Limonene has a strong citrus odor and flavor, the highest amounts are seen in citrus peels. Limonene is commonly used in perfume, house cleaners, food and medicine, partial due to it’s nice aroma and low toxicity. Limonene has been used as a house remedy for acne and athlete’s foot in the past.
Limonene has been shown to be a potent antidepressant and anti-anxiety treatment comparable to some traditional medicines. Limonene has also been inferred to be an anti-inflammatory, lowering or preventing key stages in the reaction. Limonene was elucidated in being a potential treatment for breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer.
- ANTIDEPRESSANT/ANTI-ANXIETY – Limonene demonstrated increased social interaction time and decreased immobility time, in the forced swim test using mice, indicating anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. The effects were comparable with the traditional anxiolytic diazepam and the antidepressant fluoxetine.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – Limonene was evaluated against human eosinophilic leukemia cells, specifically looking at reactive oxygen species (ROS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Limonene was found to inhibit cytokine and ROS production, while inactivating eosinophil migration.
- ANTI-CANCER – Limonene has been attributed to induction of phase I and phase II enzymes that result in carcinogen detoxification. In two prostate cancer cell lines, limonene administration resulted in higher ROS generation, depletion of GSH, accompanied by increased caspase. In addition limonene results in differentiation of cancer cells as well. Breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines were also negatively affected.
Citrus, Fresh, Orange, Sweet
Anti-anxiety, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antidepressant
A naturally occurring terpene found in many flowers and spices including lavender. Humans have inhaled the scent of certain plants, including many containing Linalool, since ancient times to help lower stress levels. Linalool has been the subject of many studies, including a recent one in which scientists allowed lab rats to inhale Linalool while exposing them to stressful conditions. It was reported that Linalool returned elevated stress levels in the immune
Linalool is a terpene alcohol with a citrusy, floral, sweet, bois de rose, woody, green, blueberry scent. Linalool is able to act on the opioidergic and cholinergic systems to relieve pain, a unique pathway for terpenes. Linalool also acts as an anticonvulsant, having similar effects to diazepam. Linalool has been used as a relaxant and as a treatment for anxiety for thousands of years. In scientific studies, linalool was proven to sedate mice and also mitigate anxiety.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – Linalool was able to reduce carrageenin-induced edema in rats, a classic model of inflammation. It’s acetate version was noted to have the same effect as well
- ANALGESIC – In mice exposed to acetic acid-induced writhing response and the hot plate test, linalool was able to act on the opioidergic and cholinergic systems in a manner to prevent neural networks from transmitting the signal of pain.
- ANTICONVULSANT – Linalool was eluted to possess pharmacological activity close to that of diazepam. In a PTZ model, PIC seizure mode, and tonic convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock, linalool therapeutically decreased the convulsion time in mice
- SEDATIVE – In an elevated plus maze test, linalool indicated to modulate motor movements and locomotion. At a high enough dose, linalool was able to make the mice go to sleep.
- ANTI-ANXIETY – Linalool was shown to possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects, showing promising potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders. Linalool was evaluated on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test, a light-dark test and an elevated plus maze test. The measurements of monoamines in the brain showed decreased serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which is commonly seen in animal models exhibiting anxiolytic effects.
Blueberry, Citrus, Floral, Rosy, Sweet, Woody
Analgesic, Anti-anxiety, Anti-inflammatory, Anticonvulsant, Sedative
A 2011 study in British Journal of Pharmacology, revealed that Myrcene has effects that were thought only cannabinoids could possess. Myrcene serves as a muscle relaxant, helps to fight insomnia and can make cannabinoids more effective. Myrcene serves as a sedative, reduces inflammation and has a powerful analgesic effect.
Myrcene is a monoterpene and an important precursor to many terpenes. It has a woody, vegetative, citrus, fruity, and mango-like scent. Myrcene is hypothesised to help compounds enter cells through enhancing membrane permeation. Myrcene has been shown to be an analgesic in mice and did not cause tolerance to the effect. Ther terpene is also noted to have antioxidant effects with mutagenic compounds. Another benefit to myrcene is its ability to relax muscles and induce sleep.
- ANALGESIC – Oral administration of myrcene in rats was concluded to produce a dose-dependent pain relief for the hyperalgesia induced by subplantar injections of either carrageenin or prostaglandin E2, but did not affect that induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results indicated a peripheral site of action. In contrast to the central analgesic effect of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated dosing in rats. Myrcene shows promise as a lead for the development of new peripheral pain killers with a different method of action than aspirin-like drugs.
- SEDATIVE – Myrcene was explored as a sedative in the mouse model. Muscle relaxation was seen as observed through the rota rod test. In addition there was an increase in sleeping time by 2.6x.
- ANTIOXIDANT – Myrcene was eluted to block the metabolic activation of some promutagens (e.g., cyclophosphamide and aflatoxin B1) in in vitro genotoxicity assays. The effects of myrcene was evaluated through the activity of liver microsomes. A concentration-dependent competitive inhibition was observed for pentoxyresorufin -O-depenthylase activity, a selective marker for a cytochrome p450. The potent inhibitory effects on the cytochrome p450 suggest that myrcene, could also interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics, which are substrates for this isoenzyme
Balsam, Peppery, Spicy
Analgesic, Antioxidant, Sedative
A unique terpene that is both a sedative and aides the body’s absorption of cannabinoids. There are a number of medical applications being studied for this terpene, including its anti-anxiety properties and effectiveness at making bacteria more susceptible to antibiotics.
Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene and that smells similar to fresh bark. There are two isomers present in nature, cis and trans. The terpene has been eluted to be a toxin against harmful protozoa like malaria and leishmaniasis. Furthermore, nerolidol is effect in delivering drugs through the skin.
- TOPICAL DRUG ENHANCER – Nerolidol has been shown to help the passive skin penetration enhancement, helping a model hydrophobic permeant increase its absorption into skin by 20 fold. There were also significantly longer durations of action and did not wash off easily.
Cornwell PA, Barry BW (1994). Sesquiterpene components of volatile oils as skin penetration enhancers for the hydrophilic permeant 5-fluorouracil. J Pharm Pharmacol 46: 261–269.
- ANTIPROTOZOAN – The research on nerolidol has concluded it to be a potent malaria drug. 100 microg/mL of nerolidol caused 100% of growth inhibition of young trophozoite to schizont stage after 48 hours of exposure. Nerolidol had an inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of the isoprenic and dolichol side chains of the benzoquinon ring of ubiquinones in the organism. Thus the expression of p21 ras protein was significantly decreased.
Lopes NP, Kato MJ, Andrade EH, Maia JG, Yoshida M, Planchart AR et al. (1999). Antimalarial use of volatile oil from leaves of Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warb. by Waiapi Amazon Indians. J Ethnopharmacol 67: 313–319. Nerolidol has been proven to be effective with Leishmaniasis as well. 57-85 uM was proven to be effective as a 50% growth inhibitory concentration in a broad range of Leishmania species.100uM resulted in 95% reduction in infection rates of macrophages. The compound inhibits the mevalonate pathway. The compound inhibits isoprenoid synthesis by reducing the incorporation of mevalonic acid or acetic acid precursors into dolichol, ergosterol, and ubiquinone. This compound’s effect can be attributed to the blockage of an early step in the mevalonate pathway.
Arruda DC, D’Alexandri FL, Katzin AM, Uliana SR (2005). Antileishmanial activity of the terpene nerolidol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 1679–1687.
Citrus, Floral, Waxy, Woody
Antiprotozoan, Topical Drug Enhancer
A terpene show to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects as well as aiding in inhibiting the proliferation of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
Ocimene is a monoterpene with a fruity, floral, some say wet cloth smell. Ocimene has exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in white blood cell through a variety of pathways. Antifungal effects are also seen with the human specific Candida species. And very interestingly ocimene showed specificity and effectiveness against SARS virus.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – The effects of ocimene on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages was studied. The results indicate that the ocimene is an effective anti-inflammatory by acting as an inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. Additionally, ocimene was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6.
- ANTIFUNGAL – Ocimene has been shown to be toxic to against Candida albicans. This effect was seen with Ferulago carduchorum essential oil. At 2340 ug/mL a minimum inhibitory concentration was reached.
- ANTIVIRAL – The essential oil of Laurus nobilis was evaluated on the SARS virus. Ocimene was noted to be a major constituent of the oil. The oil demonstrated a selectivity index of 4.16.
Citrus, Green, Tropical, Woody
Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal, Antiviral
Known for its help in relief of pain and inflammation.
Science.gov chronicles research on medical values in pinene dating back to 1980. And, research continues into its anti-viral and anti-inflammatory benefits. This terpene helps produce a focused and alert sensation because it counteracts the body’s sedative mechanisms. Pinene is also a bronchodilator that helps drive oxygen into cells.
Pinene consists of two isomers, alpha and beta, depending on the position of the double bond within the molecule. It is an alkene and contains a highly reactive four membered ring perpendicular to the main ring, prone to skeletal rearrangements. Both the – and + enantiomers are seen in nature. – alpha pinene is mostly seen in European pines, and + alpha pinene mostly in North American pines. The racemic mixture is seen in eucalyptus and citrus oils. Pinene is used in nature with the ozone to condense aerosols that could harm the environment.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – With acute pancreatitis, alpha-pinene treatment reduced histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas and lungs. Furthermore, alpha-pinene pretreatment reduced the production of pancreatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 during acute pancreatitis. In vitro, alpha-pinene inhibited cerulein-induced cell death and cytokine production in isolated cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. This could point to alpha-pinene possibly having beneficial effects with pancreatic cancer and maybe diabetes. It has been shown that alpha pinene has anti-inflammatory effects in human chondrocytes, thus exhibiting potential antiosteoarthritic activity. + alpha pinene was shown to inhibit the interleukin -1beta- induced inflammatory and catabolic pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation, and the expressionof the inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and -13) genes.
- ANTI-BACTERIAL – As tested through solid medium diffusion procedure, pinene exhibited toxic effects against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogene
- ANTI-CANCER – Mice placed in an environment enriched with a-pinene demonstrated reduced melanoma growth, and tumor volume of the mice was about 40% smaller than that in the control mice. In another study, alpha-pinene was identified as an active anti-proliferative compound on liver cancer BEL-7402 cells using the MTT assay. Alpha-pinene inhibited BEL-7402 cells by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, downregulating Cdc25C mRNA and protein expression, and reducing cycle dependence on kinase 1(CDK1) activity.
- MEMORY ENHANCER – Alpha pinene has been shown to be a uncompetitive reversible inhibitor of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The essential oil of sage having, camphor, 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate, alpha pinene and several other terpenes in much smaller concentrations were exposed to human cells. Since many memory-enhancing and dementia drugs are based on inhibiting cholinesterase to enhance cholinergic activity, it is thought that alpha pinene may act as an effective supplement for such conditions.
Earthy, Piney, Turpentine-like, Woody
Anti-bacterial, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Bronchodilator, Memory Enhancer
With an aroma peppermint this terpene, provides medical benefits of fever reduction and sedative effects.
Concluded to be effective against several species of bacteria. Terpinolene is able to increase total antioxidant capacity levels in white blood cells. Terpinolene has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to reduce psychological excitement.
Terpinolene is a common terpene primarily isolated from trees. It is present in high amounts in terpintine, which is used in the construction business as well. Terpinolene also goes by the name delta terpinene.
Terpinolene is not an analgesic or an anti-inflammatory, yet most cannabinoids and terpenoids are one of the two or both.
Terpinolene was concluded to be effective against several species of bacteria. Terpinolene is able to increase total antioxidant capacity levels in white blood cells without changing the total oxidative stress level. Terpinolene is further effective in fighting glial cell cancer and leukemia.
- ANTIBACTERIAL – Terpinolene was elucidated to be toxic against, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli through the disk susceptibility test minimum inhibitory concentrations measurements in a couple studies.
- ANTI-OXIDANT – Genotoxic, oxidative and cytotoxic effects of terpinolene were explored with white blood cells. Genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchanges assay, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine measurements. Cytotoxicity was detected by lactate dehydrogenase release and MTT assay. All assays were negative. Terpinolene treatment showed statistically significant increases of total antioxidant capacity levels in the cells without changing total oxidative stress levels. This antioxidant effect was also seen in preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein, which is helpful in combatting heart disease.
- SEDATIVE – Nasal transmission of terpinolene was concluded to induce sleep in mice. Oral administration may prove more potent.
- ANTI-CANCER – A key protein involved in progressing cancers, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, was shown to be reduced in leukemia cells with the treatment of terpinolene. Also brain cancer cells were shown to be significantly affected by the terpene as well, and no signs of genetic damage were seen in the normal cells.
- INSECTICIDE – Terpinolene demonstrated toxic effects against cockroaches, Blattella germanica,through contact as well as a fumigant.
Citrus, Fresh, Lemon, Piney, Sweet, Woody
Anti-bacterial, Anti-cancer, Antioxidant, Sedative
Has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and lower the levels of inflammatory markers in the white blood cells of the immune system. Valencene is also a bronchodilator, which aides in oxygenation and can help promote cognitive function.
Valencene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene with a sweet, fresh, citrusy, grapefruit, woody, orange odor. The terpene has been shown to be toxic and repel ticks and mosquitoes at lesser concentrations than DEET and without the toxicity to humans. Valencene has also been deduced to be and anti-inflammatory, lower the levels of inflammatory markers in macrophages.
- INSECT REPELLENT – Alaskan yellow cedar oil was tested for bug toxicity and repellent activity by the CDC against deer ticks and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Mosquitoes were shown to be killed with small amounts of a derivative of valencene after 24 h. This derivative was also shown to effectively in repelling ticks with less than 2 times more of a concentration than usually used with DEET. The ability of these natural products to kill and repel arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides, like DEET, for control of disease vectors.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY – Valencene in the oil of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes was shown to increase heme oxygenase -1 expression, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Valencene also showed inhibition of high mobility group box-1 in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice. It was concluded that through HO-1 induction, anti-inflammatory effects were observed.
Citrus, Fresh, Grapefuit, Green, Orange, Sweet, Woody
Anti-inflammatory, Insect Repellent